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Revision 1.3 - (show annotations) (download)
Tue Jun 8 00:51:58 2004 UTC (14 years, 9 months ago) by stdarg
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: HEAD
Changes since 1.2: +90 -93 lines
* Hmm... reran bootstrap with some new options... some of takeda's reordering

1 Notes on the Free Translation Project
2 *************************************
3
4 Free software is going international! The Free Translation Project
5 is a way to get maintainers of free software, translators, and users all
6 together, so that will gradually become able to speak many languages.
7 A few packages already provide translations for their messages.
8
9 If you found this `ABOUT-NLS' file inside a distribution, you may
10 assume that the distributed package does use GNU `gettext' internally,
11 itself available at your nearest GNU archive site. But you do _not_
12 need to install GNU `gettext' prior to configuring, installing or using
13 this package with messages translated.
14
15 Installers will find here some useful hints. These notes also
16 explain how users should proceed for getting the programs to use the
17 available translations. They tell how people wanting to contribute and
18 work at translations should contact the appropriate team.
19
20 When reporting bugs in the `intl/' directory or bugs which may be
21 related to internationalization, you should tell about the version of
22 `gettext' which is used. The information can be found in the
23 `intl/VERSION' file, in internationalized packages.
24
25 Quick configuration advice
26 ==========================
27
28 If you want to exploit the full power of internationalization, you
29 should configure it using
30
31 ./configure --with-included-gettext
32
33 to force usage of internationalizing routines provided within this
34 package, despite the existence of internationalizing capabilities in the
35 operating system where this package is being installed. So far, only
36 the `gettext' implementation in the GNU C library version 2 provides as
37 many features (such as locale alias, message inheritance, automatic
38 charset conversion or plural form handling) as the implementation here.
39 It is also not possible to offer this additional functionality on top
40 of a `catgets' implementation. Future versions of GNU `gettext' will
41 very likely convey even more functionality. So it might be a good idea
42 to change to GNU `gettext' as soon as possible.
43
44 So you need _not_ provide this option if you are using GNU libc 2 or
45 you have installed a recent copy of the GNU gettext package with the
46 included `libintl'.
47
48 INSTALL Matters
49 ===============
50
51 Some packages are "localizable" when properly installed; the
52 programs they contain can be made to speak your own native language.
53 Most such packages use GNU `gettext'. Other packages have their own
54 ways to internationalization, predating GNU `gettext'.
55
56 By default, this package will be installed to allow translation of
57 messages. It will automatically detect whether the system already
58 provides the GNU `gettext' functions. If not, the GNU `gettext' own
59 library will be used. This library is wholly contained within this
60 package, usually in the `intl/' subdirectory, so prior installation of
61 the GNU `gettext' package is _not_ required. Installers may use
62 special options at configuration time for changing the default
63 behaviour. The commands:
64
65 ./configure --with-included-gettext
66 ./configure --disable-nls
67
68 will respectively bypass any pre-existing `gettext' to use the
69 internationalizing routines provided within this package, or else,
70 _totally_ disable translation of messages.
71
72 When you already have GNU `gettext' installed on your system and run
73 configure without an option for your new package, `configure' will
74 probably detect the previously built and installed `libintl.a' file and
75 will decide to use this. This might be not what is desirable. You
76 should use the more recent version of the GNU `gettext' library. I.e.
77 if the file `intl/VERSION' shows that the library which comes with this
78 package is more recent, you should use
79
80 ./configure --with-included-gettext
81
82 to prevent auto-detection.
83
84 The configuration process will not test for the `catgets' function
85 and therefore it will not be used. The reason is that even an
86 emulation of `gettext' on top of `catgets' could not provide all the
87 extensions of the GNU `gettext' library.
88
89 Internationalized packages have usually many `po/LL.po' files, where
90 LL gives an ISO 639 two-letter code identifying the language. Unless
91 translations have been forbidden at `configure' time by using the
92 `--disable-nls' switch, all available translations are installed
93 together with the package. However, the environment variable `LINGUAS'
94 may be set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.
95 `LINGUAS' should then contain a space separated list of two-letter
96 codes, stating which languages are allowed.
97
98 Using This Package
99 ==================
100
101 As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, you
102 only have to set the `LANG' environment variable to the appropriate
103 `LL_CC' combination. Here `LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language code,
104 and `CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code. For example, let's
105 suppose that you speak German and live in Germany. At the shell
106 prompt, merely execute `setenv LANG de_DE' (in `csh'),
107 `export LANG; LANG=de_DE' (in `sh') or `export LANG=de_DE' (in `bash').
108 This can be done from your `.login' or `.profile' file, once and for
109 all.
110
111 You might think that the country code specification is redundant.
112 But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries. For
113 example, `de_AT' is used for Austria, and `pt_BR' for Brazil. The
114 country code serves to distinguish the dialects.
115
116 The locale naming convention of `LL_CC', with `LL' denoting the
117 language and `CC' denoting the country, is the one use on systems based
118 on GNU libc. On other systems, some variations of this scheme are
119 used, such as `LL' or `LL_CC.ENCODING'. You can get the list of
120 locales supported by your system for your country by running the command
121 `locale -a | grep '^LL''.
122
123 Not all programs have translations for all languages. By default, an
124 English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation. If you
125 understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages.
126 This is done through a different environment variable, called
127 `LANGUAGE'. GNU `gettext' gives preference to `LANGUAGE' over `LANG'
128 for the purpose of message handling, but you still need to have `LANG'
129 set to the primary language; this is required by other parts of the
130 system libraries. For example, some Swedish users who would rather
131 read translations in German than English for when Swedish is not
132 available, set `LANGUAGE' to `sv:de' while leaving `LANG' to `sv_SE'.
133
134 In the `LANGUAGE' environment variable, but not in the `LANG'
135 environment variable, `LL_CC' combinations can be abbreviated as `LL'
136 to denote the language's main dialect. For example, `de' is equivalent
137 to `de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and `pt' to `pt_PT'
138 (Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.
139
140 Translating Teams
141 =================
142
143 For the Free Translation Project to be a success, we need interested
144 people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also
145 able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language.
146 Each translation team has its own mailing list. The up-to-date list of
147 teams can be found at the Free Translation Project's homepage,
148 `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/', in the "National teams"
149 area.
150
151 If you'd like to volunteer to _work_ at translating messages, you
152 should become a member of the translating team for your own language.
153 The subscribing address is _not_ the same as the list itself, it has
154 `-request' appended. For example, speakers of Swedish can send a
155 message to `sv-request@li.org', having this message body:
156
157 subscribe
158
159 Keep in mind that team members are expected to participate
160 _actively_ in translations, or at solving translational difficulties,
161 rather than merely lurking around. If your team does not exist yet and
162 you want to start one, or if you are unsure about what to do or how to
163 get started, please write to `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to reach the
164 coordinator for all translator teams.
165
166 The English team is special. It works at improving and uniformizing
167 the terminology in use. Proven linguistic skill are praised more than
168 programming skill, here.
169
170 Available Packages
171 ==================
172
173 Languages are not equally supported in all packages. The following
174 matrix shows the current state of internationalization, as of July
175 2002. The matrix shows, in regard of each package, for which languages
176 PO files have been submitted to translation coordination, with a
177 translation percentage of at least 50%.
178
179 Ready PO files be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
180 +----------------------------------------+
181 a2ps | [] [] [] [] |
182 bash | [] [] [] [] |
183 bfd | [] [] |
184 binutils | [] [] |
185 bison | [] [] [] [] |
186 clisp | [] [] [] [] |
187 clisp | |
188 clisplow | |
189 cpio | [] [] [] [] |
190 darkstat | () |
191 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
192 enscript | [] [] |
193 error | [] [] [] |
194 fetchmail | [] () [] [] [] () |
195 fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
196 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
197 flex | [] [] [] [] [] |
198 gas | [] [] |
199 gawk | [] [] [] |
200 gcal | [] [] |
201 gcc | [] [] |
202 gettext | [] [] [] [] [] |
203 gnupg | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
204 gprof | [] [] |
205 gpsdrive | () () () () () |
206 grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
207 gretl | [] |
208 gthumb | () () () |
209 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
210 id-utils | [] [] [] |
211 indent | [] [] [] [] [] |
212 jpilot | () [] [] [] |
213 jwhois | [] [] |
214 kbd | [] [] [] |
215 ld | [] [] |
216 libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
217 libiconv | [] [] [] [] |
218 lifelines | () () |
219 lilypond | [] [] [] |
220 lingoteach | [] [] |
221 lingoteach_lessons| () () |
222 lynx | [] [] [] [] [] |
223 m4 | [] [] [] [] [] |
224 make | [] [] [] [] |
225 man-db | [] () () [] () () |
226 mysecretdiary | [] [] [] |
227 nano | [] () [] [] [] [] |
228 nano_1_0 | [] () [] [] [] [] |
229 opcodes | [] [] [] |
230 parted | [] [] [] [] [] |
231 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
232 python | |
233 recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
234 sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
235 sh-utils | [] [] [] [] |
236 sharutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
237 sketch | () [] () |
238 soundtracker | [] [] [] |
239 sp | [] |
240 tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
241 texinfo | [] [] [] [] [] |
242 textutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
243 util-linux | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
244 vorbis-tools | [] |
245 wastesedge | |
246 wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
247 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
248 +----------------------------------------+
249 be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
250 0 2 19 10 30 44 9 1 12 45 16 3 53
251
252 gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
253 +-------------------------------------+
254 a2ps | () () [] |
255 bash | [] |
256 bfd | [] |
257 binutils | [] |
258 bison | [] [] [] [] |
259 clisp | [] |
260 clisp | |
261 clisplow | |
262 cpio | [] [] [] [] |
263 darkstat | () |
264 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
265 enscript | [] [] |
266 error | [] |
267 fetchmail | [] |
268 fileutils | [] [] [] |
269 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
270 flex | [] |
271 gas | |
272 gawk | [] |
273 gcal | |
274 gcc | [] |
275 gettext | [] [] |
276 gnupg | [] [] [] [] |
277 gprof | |
278 gpsdrive | [] () () |
279 grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
280 gretl | |
281 gthumb | () () |
282 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
283 id-utils | [] [] |
284 indent | [] [] [] [] |
285 jpilot | () () |
286 jwhois | [] [] |
287 kbd | |
288 ld | |
289 libc | [] [] [] [] |
290 libiconv | [] [] [] |
291 lifelines | |
292 lilypond | [] [] |
293 lingoteach | [] |
294 lingoteach_lessons| |
295 lynx | [] [] [] [] |
296 m4 | [] [] [] [] |
297 make | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
298 man-db | () () |
299 mysecretdiary | [] |
300 nano | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
301 nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] [] |
302 opcodes | [] [] |
303 parted | [] [] [] |
304 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] |
305 python | |
306 recode | [] [] [] |
307 sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
308 sh-utils | [] [] [] |
309 sharutils | [] [] [] |
310 sketch | () |
311 soundtracker | [] [] |
312 sp | |
313 tar | [] [] [] [] [] |
314 texinfo | [] [] [] |
315 textutils | [] [] [] |
316 util-linux | () [] |
317 vorbis-tools | |
318 wastesedge | |
319 wdiff | [] [] [] |
320 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
321 +-------------------------------------+
322 gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
323 23 9 12 18 14 13 26 9 1 8 19 4
324
325 no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_TW
326 +----------------------------------------+
327 a2ps | () () () [] [] [] [] [] | 10
328 bash | [] | 6
329 bfd | [] [] | 5
330 binutils | [] [] | 5
331 bison | [] [] [] | 11
332 clisp | | 5
333 clisp | | 0
334 clisplow | | 0
335 cpio | [] [] [] [] | 12
336 darkstat | [] () | 1
337 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 17
338 enscript | [] [] [] [] | 8
339 error | [] [] [] | 7
340 fetchmail | () () [] | 6
341 fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 13
342 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 21
343 flex | [] [] [] | 9
344 gas | [] | 3
345 gawk | [] [] | 6
346 gcal | [] [] | 4
347 gcc | [] | 4
348 gettext | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 13
349 gnupg | [] [] [] | 14
350 gprof | [] [] | 4
351 gpsdrive | [] [] () | 3
352 grep | [] [] [] [] | 18
353 gretl | | 1
354 gthumb | () () [] | 1
355 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 28
356 id-utils | [] [] [] [] | 9
357 indent | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
358 jpilot | () () [] | 4
359 jwhois | [] () () [] [] | 7
360 kbd | [] [] | 5
361 ld | [] [] | 4
362 libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 17
363 libiconv | [] [] [] [] | 11
364 lifelines | [] | 1
365 lilypond | [] | 6
366 lingoteach | [] [] | 5
367 lingoteach_lessons| | 0
368 lynx | [] [] [] [] | 13
369 m4 | [] [] [] | 12
370 make | [] [] [] [] | 14
371 man-db | | 3
372 mysecretdiary | [] [] [] | 7
373 nano | [] [] [] [] | 15
374 nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] | 14
375 opcodes | [] [] | 7
376 parted | [] [] [] | 11
377 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 19
378 python | | 0
379 recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 15
380 sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 23
381 sh-utils | [] | 8
382 sharutils | [] [] [] [] | 13
383 sketch | [] () [] | 4
384 soundtracker | [] | 6
385 sp | | 1
386 tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 18
387 texinfo | [] [] | 10
388 textutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 13
389 util-linux | [] [] [] | 10
390 vorbis-tools | [] | 2
391 wastesedge | | 0
392 wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
393 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 24
394 +----------------------------------------+
395 36 teams no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_TW
396 67 domains 4 15 2 24 26 12 10 47 42 4 8 594
397
398 Some counters in the preceding matrix are higher than the number of
399 visible blocks let us expect. This is because a few extra PO files are
400 used for implementing regional variants of languages, or language
401 dialects.
402
403 For a PO file in the matrix above to be effective, the package to
404 which it applies should also have been internationalized and
405 distributed as such by its maintainer. There might be an observable
406 lag between the mere existence a PO file and its wide availability in a
407 distribution.
408
409 If July 2002 seems to be old, you may fetch a more recent copy of
410 this `ABOUT-NLS' file on most GNU archive sites. The most up-to-date
411 matrix with full percentage details can be found at
412 `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/matrix.html'.
413
414 Using `gettext' in new packages
415 ===============================
416
417 If you are writing a freely available program and want to
418 internationalize it you are welcome to use GNU `gettext' in your
419 package. Of course you have to respect the GNU Library General Public
420 License which covers the use of the GNU `gettext' library. This means
421 in particular that even non-free programs can use `libintl' as a shared
422 library, whereas only free software can use `libintl' as a static
423 library or use modified versions of `libintl'.
424
425 Once the sources are changed appropriately and the setup can handle
426 to use of `gettext' the only thing missing are the translations. The
427 Free Translation Project is also available for packages which are not
428 developed inside the GNU project. Therefore the information given above
429 applies also for every other Free Software Project. Contact
430 `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to make the `.pot' files available to
431 the translation teams.
432

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