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Revision 1.2 - (hide annotations) (download)
Fri Mar 7 11:30:33 2003 UTC (16 years ago) by tothwolf
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.1: +232 -121 lines
* Upgraded gettext to version 0.11.5.

1 ite 1.1 Notes on the Free Translation Project
2     *************************************
3    
4     Free software is going international! The Free Translation Project
5     is a way to get maintainers of free software, translators, and users all
6     together, so that will gradually become able to speak many languages.
7     A few packages already provide translations for their messages.
8    
9     If you found this `ABOUT-NLS' file inside a distribution, you may
10     assume that the distributed package does use GNU `gettext' internally,
11     itself available at your nearest GNU archive site. But you do _not_
12     need to install GNU `gettext' prior to configuring, installing or using
13     this package with messages translated.
14    
15     Installers will find here some useful hints. These notes also
16     explain how users should proceed for getting the programs to use the
17     available translations. They tell how people wanting to contribute and
18     work at translations should contact the appropriate team.
19    
20     When reporting bugs in the `intl/' directory or bugs which may be
21     related to internationalization, you should tell about the version of
22     `gettext' which is used. The information can be found in the
23     `intl/VERSION' file, in internationalized packages.
24    
25     Quick configuration advice
26     ==========================
27    
28     If you want to exploit the full power of internationalization, you
29     should configure it using
30    
31     ./configure --with-included-gettext
32    
33     to force usage of internationalizing routines provided within this
34     package, despite the existence of internationalizing capabilities in the
35     operating system where this package is being installed. So far, only
36     the `gettext' implementation in the GNU C library version 2 provides as
37     many features (such as locale alias, message inheritance, automatic
38     charset conversion or plural form handling) as the implementation here.
39     It is also not possible to offer this additional functionality on top
40     of a `catgets' implementation. Future versions of GNU `gettext' will
41     very likely convey even more functionality. So it might be a good idea
42     to change to GNU `gettext' as soon as possible.
43    
44     So you need _not_ provide this option if you are using GNU libc 2 or
45     you have installed a recent copy of the GNU gettext package with the
46     included `libintl'.
47    
48     INSTALL Matters
49     ===============
50    
51     Some packages are "localizable" when properly installed; the
52     programs they contain can be made to speak your own native language.
53     Most such packages use GNU `gettext'. Other packages have their own
54     ways to internationalization, predating GNU `gettext'.
55    
56     By default, this package will be installed to allow translation of
57     messages. It will automatically detect whether the system already
58     provides the GNU `gettext' functions. If not, the GNU `gettext' own
59     library will be used. This library is wholly contained within this
60     package, usually in the `intl/' subdirectory, so prior installation of
61     the GNU `gettext' package is _not_ required. Installers may use
62     special options at configuration time for changing the default
63     behaviour. The commands:
64    
65     ./configure --with-included-gettext
66     ./configure --disable-nls
67    
68     will respectively bypass any pre-existing `gettext' to use the
69     internationalizing routines provided within this package, or else,
70     _totally_ disable translation of messages.
71    
72     When you already have GNU `gettext' installed on your system and run
73     configure without an option for your new package, `configure' will
74     probably detect the previously built and installed `libintl.a' file and
75     will decide to use this. This might be not what is desirable. You
76     should use the more recent version of the GNU `gettext' library. I.e.
77     if the file `intl/VERSION' shows that the library which comes with this
78     package is more recent, you should use
79    
80     ./configure --with-included-gettext
81    
82     to prevent auto-detection.
83    
84     The configuration process will not test for the `catgets' function
85     and therefore it will not be used. The reason is that even an
86     emulation of `gettext' on top of `catgets' could not provide all the
87     extensions of the GNU `gettext' library.
88    
89     Internationalized packages have usually many `po/LL.po' files, where
90     LL gives an ISO 639 two-letter code identifying the language. Unless
91     translations have been forbidden at `configure' time by using the
92     `--disable-nls' switch, all available translations are installed
93     together with the package. However, the environment variable `LINGUAS'
94     may be set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.
95     `LINGUAS' should then contain a space separated list of two-letter
96     codes, stating which languages are allowed.
97    
98     Using This Package
99     ==================
100    
101     As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, you
102     only have to set the `LANG' environment variable to the appropriate
103     `LL_CC' combination. Here `LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language code,
104     and `CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code. For example, let's
105     suppose that you speak German and live in Germany. At the shell
106     prompt, merely execute `setenv LANG de_DE' (in `csh'),
107     `export LANG; LANG=de_DE' (in `sh') or `export LANG=de_DE' (in `bash').
108     This can be done from your `.login' or `.profile' file, once and for
109     all.
110    
111     You might think that the country code specification is redundant.
112     But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries. For
113     example, `de_AT' is used for Austria, and `pt_BR' for Brazil. The
114     country code serves to distinguish the dialects.
115    
116 tothwolf 1.2 The locale naming convention of `LL_CC', with `LL' denoting the
117     language and `CC' denoting the country, is the one use on systems based
118     on GNU libc. On other systems, some variations of this scheme are
119     used, such as `LL' or `LL_CC.ENCODING'. You can get the list of
120     locales supported by your system for your country by running the command
121     `locale -a | grep '^LL''.
122    
123 ite 1.1 Not all programs have translations for all languages. By default, an
124     English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation. If you
125     understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages.
126     This is done through a different environment variable, called
127     `LANGUAGE'. GNU `gettext' gives preference to `LANGUAGE' over `LANG'
128     for the purpose of message handling, but you still need to have `LANG'
129     set to the primary language; this is required by other parts of the
130     system libraries. For example, some Swedish users who would rather
131     read translations in German than English for when Swedish is not
132     available, set `LANGUAGE' to `sv:de' while leaving `LANG' to `sv_SE'.
133    
134     In the `LANGUAGE' environment variable, but not in the `LANG'
135     environment variable, `LL_CC' combinations can be abbreviated as `LL'
136     to denote the language's main dialect. For example, `de' is equivalent
137     to `de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and `pt' to `pt_PT'
138     (Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.
139    
140     Translating Teams
141     =================
142    
143     For the Free Translation Project to be a success, we need interested
144     people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also
145     able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language.
146     Each translation team has its own mailing list. The up-to-date list of
147     teams can be found at the Free Translation Project's homepage,
148     `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/', in the "National teams"
149     area.
150    
151     If you'd like to volunteer to _work_ at translating messages, you
152     should become a member of the translating team for your own language.
153     The subscribing address is _not_ the same as the list itself, it has
154     `-request' appended. For example, speakers of Swedish can send a
155     message to `sv-request@li.org', having this message body:
156    
157     subscribe
158    
159     Keep in mind that team members are expected to participate
160     _actively_ in translations, or at solving translational difficulties,
161     rather than merely lurking around. If your team does not exist yet and
162     you want to start one, or if you are unsure about what to do or how to
163     get started, please write to `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to reach the
164     coordinator for all translator teams.
165    
166     The English team is special. It works at improving and uniformizing
167     the terminology in use. Proven linguistic skill are praised more than
168     programming skill, here.
169    
170     Available Packages
171     ==================
172    
173     Languages are not equally supported in all packages. The following
174 tothwolf 1.2 matrix shows the current state of internationalization, as of August
175     2002. The matrix shows, in regard of each package, for which languages
176 ite 1.1 PO files have been submitted to translation coordination, with a
177     translation percentage of at least 50%.
178    
179 tothwolf 1.2 Ready PO files be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
180     +----------------------------------------+
181     a2ps | [] [] [] [] |
182     ap-utils | |
183     bash | [] [] [] [] |
184     bfd | [] [] |
185     binutils | [] [] |
186     bison | [] [] [] [] |
187     clisp | |
188     clisp | [] [] [] [] |
189     clisplow | |
190     cpio | [] [] [] [] |
191     darkstat | () |
192     diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
193     enscript | [] [] |
194     error | [] [] [] |
195     fetchmail | [] () [] [] [] () |
196     fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
197     findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
198     flex | [] [] [] [] [] |
199     gas | [] [] |
200     gawk | [] [] [] |
201     gcal | [] [] |
202     gcc | [] [] |
203     gettext | [] [] [] [] [] |
204     gnupg | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
205     gprof | [] [] |
206     gpsdrive | () () () () () |
207     grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
208     gretl | [] |
209     gthumb | () () () |
210     hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
211     id-utils | [] [] [] |
212     indent | [] [] [] [] [] |
213     jpilot | () [] [] [] |
214     jwhois | [] [] |
215     kbd | [] [] [] |
216     ld | [] [] |
217     libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
218     libiconv | [] [] [] [] |
219     lifelines | () () |
220     lilypond | [] [] |
221     lingoteach | [] [] |
222     lingoteach_lessons| () () |
223     lynx | [] [] [] [] [] |
224     m4 | [] [] [] [] [] |
225     make | [] [] [] [] |
226     man-db | [] () () [] () () |
227     mysecretdiary | [] [] [] |
228     nano | [] () [] [] [] [] |
229     nano_1_0 | [] () [] [] [] [] |
230     opcodes | [] [] [] |
231     parted | [] [] [] [] [] |
232     ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
233     python | |
234     recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
235     sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
236     sh-utils | [] [] [] [] |
237     sharutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
238     sketch | () [] () |
239     soundtracker | [] [] [] |
240     sp | [] |
241     tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
242     texinfo | [] [] [] [] [] |
243     textutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
244     util-linux | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
245     vorbis-tools | [] |
246     wastesedge | |
247     wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
248     wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
249     +----------------------------------------+
250     be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
251     0 2 19 10 30 44 9 1 12 44 17 6 53
252    
253     gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
254     +-------------------------------------+
255     a2ps | () () [] |
256     ap-utils | |
257     bash | [] |
258     bfd | [] |
259     binutils | [] |
260     bison | [] [] [] [] |
261     clisp | |
262     clisp | [] |
263     clisplow | |
264     cpio | [] [] [] [] |
265     darkstat | |
266     diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
267     enscript | [] [] |
268     error | [] |
269     fetchmail | [] |
270     fileutils | [] [] [] |
271     findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
272     flex | [] |
273     gas | |
274     gawk | [] |
275     gcal | |
276     gcc | [] |
277     gettext | [] [] |
278     gnupg | [] [] [] [] |
279     gprof | [] |
280     gpsdrive | [] () () |
281     grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
282     gretl | |
283     gthumb | () () |
284     hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
285     id-utils | [] [] |
286     indent | [] [] [] [] |
287     jpilot | () () |
288     jwhois | [] [] |
289     kbd | |
290     ld | |
291     libc | [] [] [] [] |
292     libiconv | [] [] [] |
293     lifelines | |
294     lilypond | [] |
295     lingoteach | [] |
296     lingoteach_lessons| |
297     lynx | [] [] [] [] |
298     m4 | [] [] [] [] |
299     make | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
300     man-db | () () |
301     mysecretdiary | [] |
302     nano | [] [] [] [] |
303     nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] [] |
304     opcodes | [] [] |
305     parted | [] [] [] |
306     ptx | [] [] [] [] [] |
307     python | |
308     recode | [] [] [] |
309     sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
310     sh-utils | [] [] [] |
311     sharutils | [] [] [] |
312     sketch | () |
313     soundtracker | [] [] |
314     sp | |
315     tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
316     texinfo | [] [] [] |
317     textutils | [] [] [] [] |
318     util-linux | () [] |
319     vorbis-tools | [] |
320     wastesedge | |
321     wdiff | [] [] [] |
322     wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
323     +-------------------------------------+
324     gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
325     23 9 12 19 16 13 26 9 1 7 19 3
326 ite 1.1
327 tothwolf 1.2 no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_CN zh_TW
328     +----------------------------------------------+
329     a2ps | () () () [] [] [] [] [] | 10
330     ap-utils | () | 0
331     bash | [] | 6
332     bfd | [] [] | 5
333     binutils | [] [] | 5
334     bison | [] [] [] [] | 12
335     clisp | | 0
336     clisp | | 5
337     clisplow | | 0
338     cpio | [] [] [] [] | 12
339     darkstat | [] [] () () | 2
340     diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 17
341     enscript | [] [] [] [] | 8
342     error | [] [] [] | 7
343     fetchmail | () () [] | 6
344     fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 14
345     findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 21
346     flex | [] [] [] | 9
347     gas | [] | 3
348     gawk | [] [] | 6
349     gcal | [] [] | 4
350     gcc | [] | 4
351     gettext | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 13
352     gnupg | [] [] [] | 14
353     gprof | [] [] | 5
354     gpsdrive | [] [] | 3
355     grep | [] [] [] [] [] | 20
356     gretl | | 1
357     gthumb | () () [] | 1
358     hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 28
359     id-utils | [] [] [] [] | 9
360     indent | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
361     jpilot | () () [] [] | 5
362     jwhois | [] () () [] [] | 7
363     kbd | [] [] | 5
364     ld | [] [] | 4
365     libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 18
366     libiconv | [] [] [] [] [] | 12
367     lifelines | [] | 1
368     lilypond | [] | 4
369     lingoteach | [] [] | 5
370     lingoteach_lessons| () | 0
371     lynx | [] [] [] [] | 13
372     m4 | [] [] [] [] | 13
373     make | [] [] [] [] [] | 15
374     man-db | | 3
375     mysecretdiary | [] [] [] | 7
376     nano | [] [] [] [] | 13
377     nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] | 14
378     opcodes | [] [] [] | 8
379     parted | [] [] [] [] | 12
380     ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 19
381     python | | 0
382     recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 15
383     sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 24
384     sh-utils | [] [] | 9
385     sharutils | [] [] [] [] | 14
386     sketch | [] () [] | 4
387     soundtracker | [] | 6
388     sp | | 1
389     tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 19
390     texinfo | [] [] | 10
391     textutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
392     util-linux | [] [] [] | 10
393     vorbis-tools | [] | 3
394     wastesedge | | 0
395     wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
396     wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 24
397     +----------------------------------------------+
398     37 teams no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_CN zh_TW
399     68 domains 4 15 2 28 28 12 10 49 43 4 1 9 609
400 ite 1.1
401     Some counters in the preceding matrix are higher than the number of
402     visible blocks let us expect. This is because a few extra PO files are
403     used for implementing regional variants of languages, or language
404     dialects.
405    
406     For a PO file in the matrix above to be effective, the package to
407     which it applies should also have been internationalized and
408     distributed as such by its maintainer. There might be an observable
409     lag between the mere existence a PO file and its wide availability in a
410     distribution.
411    
412 tothwolf 1.2 If August 2002 seems to be old, you may fetch a more recent copy of
413     this `ABOUT-NLS' file on most GNU archive sites. The most up-to-date
414     matrix with full percentage details can be found at
415 ite 1.1 `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/matrix.html'.
416    
417     Using `gettext' in new packages
418     ===============================
419    
420     If you are writing a freely available program and want to
421     internationalize it you are welcome to use GNU `gettext' in your
422     package. Of course you have to respect the GNU Library General Public
423     License which covers the use of the GNU `gettext' library. This means
424     in particular that even non-free programs can use `libintl' as a shared
425     library, whereas only free software can use `libintl' as a static
426     library or use modified versions of `libintl'.
427    
428     Once the sources are changed appropriately and the setup can handle
429     to use of `gettext' the only thing missing are the translations. The
430     Free Translation Project is also available for packages which are not
431     developed inside the GNU project. Therefore the information given above
432     applies also for every other Free Software Project. Contact
433     `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to make the `.pot' files available to
434     the translation teams.
435    

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